Heat oven to 450 degrees F and arrange rack in the middle. Line a baking sheet with aluminum foil, place bread on top, and set aside.
Melt butter in a large nonstick frying pan over medium heat. When foaming subsides, remove from heat, add vanilla, salt, and cloves and sprinkle sugar evenly into pan.
Place apples in a single layer and return to stove. Cook over medium heat, turning apples once, until apples are knife tender, about 10 minutes. Arrange apples on bread and pour all but 1/4 cup caramel sauce on top. Bake in oven until caramel sauce bubbles and bread is heated through, about 5 to 7 minutes. Remove from oven, pour remaining caramel on apples and let pizza sit for 5 minutes before cutting. Serve with ice cream or whipped cream.