For the onions: Heat the oil in a medium saute pan over medium heat. Add the garlic, onions and thyme and sprinkle with salt and black pepper. Cook until translucent, 3 to 5 minutes, and then add 1/2 cup water. Continue cooking until the onions are tender, 10 to 15 minutes. If the liquid reduces too much, add a little more water. Taste for seasoning, adding more salt and pepper as needed. Stir in the ginger. Remove from the heat and discard the thyme.
For the shrimp: Heat a large skillet over medium-high heat and add the oil. Toss the shrimp with the paprika and salt in a bowl, stirring to coat. When the oil begins to smoke, shut off the heat, add the shrimp to the skillet and toss around with a metal spatula so they are coated with oil and cook more evenly. Stir in the sherry. Turn the heat back on to medium-high and cook until the shrimp are no longer translucent, 1 to 2 minutes. Season with more salt and pepper. Squeeze the lemon juice over and remove from the heat. Reserve any cooking liquid (if there is any). Stir the onion mixture into the shrimp.
For the vinaigrette: Whisk together the olive oil, vinegar and lemon juice and zest in a small bowl. Add in any cooking liquid from the shrimp. Whisk to blend. Season with salt and pepper. For assembly: Spoon a little of the onion and shrimp mixture onto the bottom of each Bibb leaf. Top each with a sprinkle of the peanuts and drizzle with the vinaigrette. Serve any remaining vinaigrette on the side.