For the cooking liquid, in a large pot, combine all the cooking liquid ingredients. Place over high heat and bring to a boil. Reduce the heat and simmer for 20 to 30 minutes. Strain, discarding the solids. Let the liquid cool in the pot.
For the shrimp: Add the shrimp to the cooled cooking liquid. Heat over medium-high heat for 8 minutes. When cooked, remove shrimp to a bowl and reserve the liquid.
In a large bowl, whisk together the cider vinegar, lemon juice, sugar, salt, and dill weed. Add the shrimp and let stand for 15 minutes.
In each of 6 (8-ounce) jars, layer the shrimp and onion slices. Add 2 peppercorns, 1 bay leaf, 1 garlic clove, and 1 whole clove to each jar. Divide the vinegar mixture among the jars. Top off each jar with the reserved cooking liquid. Screw the lids on tightly and store in the refrigerator for up to 3 days. Discard bay leaves.