Boil the penne, drain, rinse, and set aside. To prevent the noodles from sticking, spray with olive oil cooking spray.
In a large, nonstick skillet over medium heat, add the butter and also spray with olive oil cooking spray. Add the garlic. Season the chicken with salt and pepper, add to pan, and saute until chicken is cooked through. Remove chicken from the pan and set aside, covering with foil. Add the vermouth and the juice and zest from 2 lemons. Scrape the bottom of the pan to loosen any browned bits and cook over medium-high heat to reduce a bit before adding the broth, flour, and milk and whisk constantly to incorporate the flour. Allow the sauce to thicken slightly and season with salt and pepper. Add the Parmesan and whisk constantly until the sauce thickens even more. Return the cooked chicken, along with any reserved juices, to the pan. Add the artichokes and stir gently until the artichokes and chicken are warmed through and the sauce is even thicker. Place the penne on a pretty platter and top with the chicken mixture. Garnish with fresh chopped parsley, black pepper, and lemon wedges for an easy and elegant presentation.