Preheat the oven to 450 degrees F. Line a half-sheet pan with parchment paper.
Cut each ball of dough in half. Pat and stretch out 1 piece into a 12-inch-long, 6-inch-wide rectangle. Spread 2 tablespoons pesto on top, leaving a 1 inch border all around, then sprinkle evenly with 1/4 cup shredded cheese. Arrange 3 slices each of salami and provolone in the center, then tear a roasted pepper into wide strips and lay over the provolone. Fold in the long sides so their edges meet and pinch shut, then pinch the short ends closed. Transfer to the prepared pan, seam side down. Repeat with the remaining ingredients, spacing the rolled dough 2 inches apart on the pan. Cut 1/2-inch steam vents on top with kitchen shears.
Bake in middle of oven until golden, about 25 minutes. Cool slightly, slice, and serve hot.