Heat the oil a large skillet, with a lid, over medium heat. Add the shallots, ginger, garlic, lemongrass, and chili, and stir-fry until golden and aromatic, about 3 minutes. Add the water, fish sauce, and sugar, stir and bring to a simmer. Add the mussels, cover and steam until they open and plump slightly, about 5 minutes.
Discard any mussels that do not open. Stir in the lime juice, cilantro, and mint leaves. Divide the mussels and broth evenly among the bowls. Serve.
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