Heat the butter in a large soup pot over medium heat. Add the onion and garlic and cook, covered, stirring occasionally, until soft, about 7 minutes. Add the carrots and cook, covered, stirring occasionally, until somewhat tender, about 3 minutes more.
Pour in the broth and the sugar. Season the soup with the salt. Bring to a boil, lower the heat, and simmer, covered, until the carrots are very soft, about 30 minutes. Remove from the heat and allow to cool.
Working in batches, transfer the carrot mixture to a blender and puree until smooth.
Return the carrot puree to the pot and reheat over medium heat. Stir in the lemon juice and season with pepper. Divide among warm soup bowls and serve immediately.
Choose carrots with perky green tops for optimum flavor.
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