Put the vinegar, soy sauce, sugar, peppercorns, red pepper, garlic, bay leaves and 1/2 cup water in a large re-sealable plastic bag. Close and shake to combine the ingredients and dissolve the sugar.
Open the bag, add the chicken and reseal; shake to distribute the marinade around the chicken. Refrigerate for at least 2 hours or up to overnight.
Adjust an oven rack to the top position and preheat the broiler. Line a baking sheet with foil.
Pour everything from the bag into a large Dutch oven or pot and arrange the chicken in a single layer. Bring to a boil over high heat; cover, adjust the heat to low and cook, turning the drumsticks occasionally, until the chicken is tender and registers 165 degrees F in the deepest part of the leg, 25 to 30 minutes. Uncover the pot and transfer the chicken to the prepared baking sheet.
Increase the heat and bring the remaining liquid in the pot to a boil. Cook until reduced and just slightly thinner than maple syrup, 7 to 9 minutes. Strain the sauce and discard the solids.
Meanwhile, broil the chicken until browned in spots, turning once, 3 to 4 minutes per side. Transfer to a shallow bowl and pour the sauce over. Sprinkle with the scallions and serve with rice.
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