Cook the chorizo in a large nonstick skillet over medium heat, stirring occasionally, until lightly browned, about 5 minutes. Transfer to a food processor with a slotted spoon. Add 1/4 cup panko, the almonds and 1 clove garlic to the drippings in the skillet. Cook, stirring, until the panko and almonds are toasted, about 3 minutes; remove to a bowl. Reserve the skillet.
Add the beans, egg, remaining 1/2 cup panko, the parsley, 1 tablespoon olive oil, remaining 1 clove garlic, 1/2 teaspoon salt and a few grinds of pepper to the food processor. Process until chunky. Shape into eight 1-inch-thick patties (about 1/3 cup each) on a baking sheet. Freeze until firm, about 10 minutes.
Meanwhile, make the romesco sauce: Char the bell pepper over a gas burner on medium heat, 6 to 8 minutes. (Alternatively, broil the pepper until charred.) Discard the stem, seeds and blackened skin. Rinse out the food processor and puree the bell pepper with the almond mixture, 2 tablespoons olive oil, the vinegar and 1/4 teaspoon salt until mostly smooth, thinning with up to 1/3 cup water. Season with salt and pepper.
Heat the remaining 2 tablespoons olive oil in the reserved skillet over medium-high heat. Add the chorizo patties and cook, turning once, until browned, 4 to 5 minutes.
Divide the romesco sauce among plates and top with the patties. Drizzle olive oil and vinegar on the arugula and season with salt. Serve with the patties.
Photograph by Ryan Dausch