Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F and adjust 2 oven racks to the top and bottom halves of the oven. Line 2 baking sheets with greased parchment paper.
Sift the flour, baking powder, salt and baking soda together in a medium bowl.
Whisk the buttermilk, orange zest, vanilla and egg together in a separate bowl. Toss the cranberries with 1 1/2 tablespoons of the sugar.
Beat the butter and remaining 1/2 cup sugar together in the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with a paddle on medium-high speed until light and fluffy, about 4 minutes (or in a large bowl if using a hand mixer), scraping down the sides of the bowl as needed.
Adjust the speed to low and add the dry and wet mixtures in alternating batches until just combined. Add the cranberries and fold in using a spatula.
Spray a 1/4 measuring cup lightly with pan spray. Scoop a level 1/4 cup of batter and scrape out with a rubber spatula onto the baking sheets. Repeat with the remaining batter, spacing the muffin tops about 2 inches apart. Pat the dough into rounded mounds using wet or greased hands. Chill 30 minutes.
Bake until the muffin tops are slightly golden and can be easily lifted from the baking sheets with a spatula, 18 to 20 minutes. Be sure to keep an eye on these and rotate the baking sheets top to bottom about every 5 minutes or as needed to ensure even baking.
Let cool in the pan 3 minutes and then transfer to a cooling rack until cool to the touch. Stir together the confectioners' sugar and orange juice and drizzle over the muffin tops.
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