Prepare a grill for medium-high heat. Drizzle some olive oil on the corn and peaches and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Grill the corn and peaches, turning them periodically, until they develop dark grill and char marks on all sides, 6 to 8 minutes for the peaches and 10 to 12 minutes for the corn. Let cool slightly.
Meanwhile, whisk together the olive oil, vinegar, mustard, Fresno pepper, shallot, 1/2 teaspoon salt and a few grinds of pepper in a large bowl.
Cut the corn kernels from the cobs and discard the cobs. Slice the peach wedges crosswise so each piece has some grill marks. Add the corn kernels and sliced peaches to the large bowl of dressing along with the almonds and feta. Toss gently to coat. Check for seasoning and add more salt and pepper to taste.
Arrange a bed of arugula on a large platter. Top with the peach and corn salad.
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