Cut the honeydew into half. Save half for another use. Remove the rind. Cut into 3 wedges and then slice across to make 1/2-inch-thick triangles. You should have about 6 cups. Put the fruit in a resealable plastic bag.
Put the vinegar, sugar and chiles in a small saucepan. Bring to a boil, stirring occasionally, and boil for about 30 seconds. Transfer to a small bowl and stir in 1 cup of ice. When the mixture is tepid, pour it over the melon, and seal, pressing out the air. Lay the bag flat in a shallow dish and chill for at least 4 hours and up to overnight, flipping the bag after about 2 hours.
Remove the melon from the brine, shake off excess liquid, and place on a platter. Sprinkle some peanuts and herbs over the top, if using, and serve.
From Food Network Kitchens