Dressing: In a small bowl, whisk together the olive oil and lemon juice until combined. Season with salt and pepper, to taste.
Salad: Using a small paring knife, remove the outer leaves from the Brussels sprouts. Reserve the cores for another use. Bring a large saucepan of water to a boil over medium-high heat. Add the Brussels sprout leaves and cook for 1 minute. Drain and put in a bowl of iced water, then transfer to a colander to drain. Put the Brussels sprout leaves, arugula, endive, and almonds into a large salad bowl. Add the dressing and toss together. Sprinkle with the cheese and serve.
*To toast the almonds, arrange them in a single layer on a baking sheet. Bake in a preheated 350 degree F oven until lightly toasted, about 6 to 8 minutes. Cool completely before using. The unused core of the Brussels sprouts can be used in soups and stir-fries.