Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Fill a medium bowl with water and add the lemon juice. Set aside. With a sharp, serrated knife, cut about 1/2 inch off the medium ones. Pull off and discard the tough, green outer leaves to expose the pale green hearts. Trim the dark stem end of each artichoke. Quarter the small artichoke hearts, or cut the medium hearts lengthwise into 8 wedges. With a small spoon or your fingers, scrape out any prickly inner leaves. As you work, drop the artichokes into the lemon water to prevent browning.
Spread the bread crumbs in a single layer on a light-colored baking sheet (a dark surface tends to overbrown them). Toast in the oven until lightly browned, stirring once or twice, 3 to 5 minutes. Set aside. Set oven temperature to 425 degrees F.
In a large nonstick skillet, heat 2 tablespoons of the oil over medium heat. Add the onions and cook, stirring often, for 3 minutes. Add the garlic and cook, stirring constantly, 2 minutes. Add the toasted bread crumbs and stir well to combine. Remove the skillet from the heat and add the olives, parsley, salt, and pepper, stirring well to combine. Set aside.
Brush a shallow 12 X 8-inch baking dish with half the remaining oil. Drain the artichokes and pat dry with paper towels. Arrange one-third of the onion mixture in the prepared dish. Spread half the drained artichokes over the onion mixture. Repeat, ending with the remaining third of the onion mixture. Pour the broth carefully around the edges of the dish. Season the top lightly with salt and pepper, then drizzle with the remaining 1 tablespoon oil.
Cover the baking dish tightly with foil and bake for 20 minutes. Reduce the oven temperature to 350 degrees F. Cook until artichokes are almost cooked through and tender, about 10 minutes for the small, 15 to 20 minutes for the medium. Uncover the dish and bake for 10 minutes, or until the artichokes are tender when pierced with the tip of a sharp knife and the top is browned. (If the mixture appears too dry, add more broth as necessary around the edges of the dish.) Let cool slightly. Serve warm.
Recipe courtesy of The Mediterranean Vegan Kitchen (HP Books, 2001) by Donna Klein