Preheat the oven to 375 degrees F.
Heat the olive oil in a large ovenproof skillet over medium-high heat. Once hot, add the garlic and onions and saute until soft, about 3 minutes. Stir in the rice and cook, while stirring, to toast. Add the tomato paste, chili powder, smoked paprika and salt and pepper to taste, and stir until it's well blended with the rice. Add the chicken stock and the black beans and bring to a boil. Reduce the heat to a simmer, cover with a lid and cook on low until the rice is tender and the chicken stock is absorbed, about 15 minutes. Turn off the heat and let the rice steam, covered, for 5 minutes.
Remove the lid and fluff the rice with a fork. Sprinkle the cheese on top and bake until the cheese is melted, about 10 minutes.