For the wings: Bring 2 cups of the water, the sugar, and salt to a boil. Remove from the heat, add the remaining 2 cups water and cool the brine completely.
Put the wings in a bowl and pour in the brine, making sure all the wings are submerged. Cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate overnight.
For the wing sauce: Melt the butter in a small saucepan over medium heat. Add the garlic and ginger and cook, stirring constantly, until the garlic and ginger are golden brown, about 5 minutes. Add the hot sauce and sugar and bring to a simmer. Turn the heat down to low and simmer for 5 minutes to develop the flavors. You can leave the sauce on the back of the stove until you need it.
For the frying: When you're ready to fry, drain the wings and pat them dry with paper towels. Put the flour, cornstarch, cornmeal, and chipotle powder in a large bowl and whisk to combine. Dredge the wings in the seasoned flour, making sure each piece is well coated. Leave them on a rack while you heat the oil.
Fill a large saucepan one-third full with peanut oil. Set over medium-high heat and heat to 360 degrees F.
Working in batches, fry the wings until they're fully cooked and golden brown, 8 to 9 minutes. Keep an eye on the heat and adjust it to keep the oil between 350 and 375 degrees F. Drain the wings on a rack set over a baking sheet.
For serving: When you've fried all the wings, put them into a large bowl, pour in the wing sauce, and toss to coat all the wings with sauce. Pile the wings onto a platter, sprinkle on some of the Chicken Shake and serve with blue cheese dressing and cucumber if desired.
Combine all ingredients in a bowl and mix to blend.
Adapted from "The Red Rooster Cookbook: The Story of Food and Hustle in Harlem" by Marcus Samuelsson © Rux Martin/Houghton Mifflin Harcourt 2016. Provided courtesy of Marcus Samuelsson. All rights reserved.