Bring a large pot of water to a boil over medium heat. Salt the water, add the pasta and cook to al dente.
Heat the extra-virgin olive oil in a large skillet over medium-high heat. Add the fennel seeds and stir for 1 minute, then add all the peppers and the onions. Saute for 8 to 10 minutes, then add the garlic and season with salt and pepper, to taste. When the peppers and onions are tender, add the wine and stir for 30 seconds, then add the stock and tomatoes. Reduce the sauce for 7 to 8 minutes.
Drain the pasta, drop it into the skillet, and toss it with the butter and the sauce. Transfer the pasta to a serving bowl, sprinkle with a little cheese, top with the basil, and serve immediately.