Cook the pasta according to the package directions. Drain, let cool to room temperature, transfer to a large zip-top plastic bag and seal.
Meanwhile, heat the oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Add the onion and garlic and cook, stirring, for 1 minute. Add the asparagus, carrot, mushrooms, and artichoke hearts and cook, stirring a few times, until the vegetables are crisp-tender and the mushrooms release their juices, about 5 minutes. Add the salt and pepper and stir to coat.
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Let the pasta and vegetables cool to room temperature. Transfer them separately to large zip-top plastic bags or containers and refrigerate for up to 3 days or freeze up to 3 months. There's no need to thaw before continuing.