Preheat the oven to 375 degrees F; position racks in the upper and lower thirds of the oven. Line two baking sheets with parchment paper.
Whisk the flour, baking powder, baking soda and fine salt together in a bowl.
With an electric mixer, beat the brown sugar, granulated sugar and butter together in a large bowl until light and fluffy, 3 minutes. Add the eggs, one at a time, beating well after each addition. Add the vanilla extract and beat to combine. Add the flour mixture and beat until just incorporated. Stir in the chocolate chips and caramel bits.
Scoop heaping tablespoons of the dough onto the baking sheets, leaving about 2 inches of space between the cookies (you will have cookie dough left over). Sprinkle each cookie with a pinch of sea salt.
Bake the cookies until golden brown, rotating the position of the baking sheets halfway through, 13 minutes. Transfer the cookies to a rack to cool. Meanwhile, cool the baking sheets and repeat with the remaining cookie dough.