In a small food processor (mini-chopper), combine the garlic and ginger and puree into a paste. Transfer to a small bowl.
Heat the oil in a large pot over medium-high heat. Add the cumin seeds, cloves, cardamom, allspice, cinnamon stick, and bay leaf and cook, stirring constantly, until dark and fragrant and the cinnamon stick unfurls, about 30 seconds. Add the onion and cook, stirring, until lightly browned, about 3 minutes. Add the garlic-ginger paste, curry powder, and jalapeno and cook, stirring, until lightly browned and fragrant, about 1 minute. Add the tomato and yogurt and cook, stirring, until they separate from the oil and there is a distinctive sizzling sound, about 7 minutes. Continue to cook, stirring, for about 1 minute more.
Add the water, salt, and potatoes and bring to a boil. Lower the heat and simmer, covered, stirring occasionally, until tender, about 10 minutes. Add the cauliflower, green beans, and chickpeas, bring to a boil, and cook, uncovered, until the vegetables are tender and the liquid has thickened, about 5 minutes more. Transfer to a serving bowl and serve with plain basmati rice.
You may add or substitute any number of vegetables as you like in this recipe. Okra or any sort of sturdy green, such as kale, would be welcome additions.
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