Heat a wok over high heat and add the vegetable oil. Stir-fry the ginger and garlic until fragrant, less than 1 minute. Add the carrots and stir-fry until tender, 2 minutes. Toss in the bamboo shoots, asparagus and mushrooms and stir-fry for 1 to 2 minutes more. Season with the soy sauce, vegetarian oyster sauce and toasted sesame oil and stir well.
Arrange the butter lettuce leaves on a plate and divide the mixture among the leaves. Garnish each cup with a sprinkle of chopped chiles, green onion, cilantro, Mandarin oranges and chopped roasted peanuts and serve.
1/2 cup canned Mandarin orange segments could be used in place of the 3 segmented oranges.