Though the word is Spanish for "whitebait," in culinary circles boquerónes are fresh filleted anchovies (sometimes other small fish are used) that have been soaked in white wine vinegar for a period of several hours to several days, a process that bleaches them white. The fish are then drained and sometimes lightly rinsed. Boquerónes are usually served as tapas, napped generously in olive oil and sprinkled with chopped garlic and parsley and sometimes other ingredients such as onions and roasted red peppers.
From The Food Lover's Companion, Fourth edition by Sharon Tyler Herbst and Ron Herbst. Copyright © 2007, 2001, 1995, 1990 by Barron's Educational Series, Inc.