Understanding Omega-3 Fats
Your body can’t make them, so the only way to get omega-3 fats is to eat them. Here’s why they are so important and how to make sure you are getting enough.
There are three types of omega-3 fats. EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) are most commonly found in cold-water fish (more on food sources below). ALA (alpha-linolenic acid) is the omega-3 fat found in plants. The tricky part is, your body must convert ALA to EPA and DHA in order to get the fats' health benefits. Unfortunately, this is an inefficient process, and you’d have to eat unrealistic amounts of ALA food sources. Whichever type, omega-3 fats come from nutritious, whole foods that bring a variety of other nutrients -- protein, vitamins and minerals -- to your daily nutrition landscape.
Good sources of EPA and DHA are cold-water fish such as salmon, tuna and sardines (salmon and sardines are typically low in mercury as well). ALA is found in canola oil, soy products such as soybean oil and tofu, flaxseeds, walnuts and in some leafy green veggies (for example, kale). Food companies have been adding extra omega 3 to some foods too -- juicesbuttery spreads to name a couple. Check labels to see which kind of omega 3 they contain.
Omega-3 supplements are also an option; they are made from fish oil, flaxseed or marine algae oil. When considering a supplement, remember these guidelines:
- Take with food to avoid a fishy aftertaste or digestive problems (read: fishy burping – yuck!)
- Avoid large mega-doses unless prescribed by a doctor -- you risk smelling like fish and others WILL notice!
- Supplements will not provide you with the other nutrients found in omega-3 rich foods.
Eat a diet rich in all 3 types of omega-3 fats. Experiment with healthy salmon recipes and try to get two servings of omega 3-rich fish per week. An example of a serving would be 6 ounces raw or 4 to 5 ounces of canned or cooked salmon. Check out the American Heart Association’s list of omega-3 fish. To get some ALA, cook with canola oil, top oatmeal with ground flaxseed, add tofu to stir-fries or sprinkle walnuts on yogurt or salads.