In a large skillet over medium-high heat, cook the beef, breaking it up with a wooden spoon, until browned, 5 to 8 minutes. Season with the garlic powder, 1 teaspoon of the salt and 1/2 teaspoon of the pepper. Transfer to a paper towel-lined plate to drain.
In a slow cooker, combine the beef with the chicken broth, diced tomatoes, tomato sauce, parsley, oregano, garlic, onion, bay leaf, 1 cup water and the remaining 1 1/2 teaspoons salt and 1/2 teaspoon pepper. Cook on high for 5 1/2 hours or on low for 7 1/2.
Stir in the lasagna noodles and continue to cook for another 30 minutes. Stir in the basil just before serving.
Preheat the oven to broil.
Ladle the soup into ovenproof bowls. Top each with a few tablespoons of shredded mozzarella, a slice of provolone and a sprinkle of Parmesan. Place on a baking sheet and heat under the broiler until the cheese is bubbly, 5 to 8 minutes.