In a large saucepan, place the fava beans, escarole, shallots, the whole garlic, thyme and pepper and add enough water to come up 2 inches above the solids. Bring to a boil, reduce to a simmer and cook 30 minutes.
Puree the mixture in the bowl of a food processor and return to the pan.
In a small skillet, heat the oil over medium heat. Add the chopped garlic and cook until it starts to color, about 2 minutes, then add the parsley. Pour this mixture into the soup. Divide evenly among 4 warmed soup bowls and top with the cheese.
Recipe copyright 2000, Mario Batali. All Rights Reserved.