Cook the bacon in a large skillet over medium-low heat, rendering the fat until crispy, 6 to 8 minutes. Remove the bacon with a slotted spoon to paper towels to drain. Set aside.
Increase the heat to medium and add the onions to the remaining bacon fat. Stir, then cook until soft, translucent and lightly brown, 8 to 10 minutes. Add the chili powder and cook for another minute. Stir in the green chiles and beans. Stir and continue cooking to heat through, 6 to 8 minutes. Turn off the heat and mash with a fork, potato masher or the back of a wooden spoon. Or, for a smooth consistency, puree in a food processor (add 2 to 4 tablespoons water to the puree if it seems dry). Stir in the juice of 1 lime and season with salt.
To serve, fill one side of a serving bowl with refried beans. Fill the other side with cooked rice. Garnish with the bacon, cheese and scallions. Scatter the jalapeno slices and cilantro on top. Cut the remaining lime into wedges and tuck a wedge into the side of the bowl. Repeat to make 3 to 5 more bowls.