Make the cookie dough: Preheat the oven to 375 degrees F. Line a baking sheet with parchment.
In a stand mixer fitted with the paddle attachment, beat the butter and both sugars on medium speed until lightly and fluffy, 2 to 3 minutes. Next, with the machine running on low speed, add the eggs one at a time until incorporated, stopping and scraping down the sides of the bowl after each addition. Then add the vanilla and mix on low speed until fully incorporated.
In a medium bowl, combine the flour, baking powder, salt and baking soda. Whisk together. With the machine running on low speed, add the flour mixture and mix just until you no longer see any bits of flour.
Make the cinnamon sugar: Combine the sugar and cinnamon in a small bowl. Stir together and set aside.
Form and bake the cookies: Using a 2-inch ice cream or portion scoop, scoop the dough into 6 mounds, scraping each against the bowl as you scoop. Roll each mound in your hands to form a ball. The dough will be very soft, so handle carefully and work quickly. Drop each ball into the cinnamon sugar and roll around to completely coat. Place on the prepared baking sheet, about 2 inches apart.
Bake one sheet at a time until the cookies have puffed up and the tops begin to crackle, 11 to 13 minutes. The bottoms will get darker than the tops. Remove from the oven and let cool slightly on the baking sheet then transfer the cookies to a wire rack to cool completely. Repeat forming the remaining dough into balls and bake 6 cookies at a time.
Serve the cookies or store in an airtight container for up to 4 days.