This is a delicious, one-pot meal. It's a very hearty and traditional dish to share with your family this time of year. The texture and substance of the steak and beans make this a perfect winter dish.
Seed the chiles and toast in a large, dry skillet over medium heat until aromatic, 10 seconds per side. Rehydrate by placing in a large bowl and covering with hot tap water; weigh them down with a plate to keep submerged, 30 minutes.
Heat the oil in a 12-inch non-stick skillet over high heat. Add the cubed meat to the pan in a single layer; do not crowd the pan. Season the meat with salt. Stir and turn regularly until browned all over, about 4 minutes.
Drain the chiles and place in a blender along with 1 cup of water (use the soaking liquid if it doesn't taste bitter). Purée until smooth. Meanwhile, remove the browned meat from the skillet to cool. Slice the onion and add to the skillet; cook, stirring regularly, until onion softens and begin to brown, 4–5 minutes.
Strain the chile purée into a medium bowl. Mince and add the garlic to the skillet and toss until aromatic, about 1 minute; transfer to the plate with the beef.
In the same skillet, over high heat, add ¼ cup of the chile purée and cook, stirring constantly, until no longer "raw" in flavor; it should be the consistency of tomato paste. Add the cumin, oregano, tomatoes with their juice, and beef broth. Simmer until thickened, about 10 minutes.
Add the meat and onions to the pan, along with the strained beans. Simmer to heat through, 1–2 minutes. Season with salt and stir. Transfer to bowl and serve. Optional: Add the sugar to round out the flavors if necessary.