Bring a large pot of salted water to a boil. Toss in the noodles, swishing them around with a pair of tongs so they don't stick together, and cook until soft, 5 to 6 minutes. Strain and immediately rinse with cold water, and then transfer to a bowl and toss with the sesame oil.
Coat a large straight-sided saute pan with the peanut oil and toss in the white scallions, the garlic, ginger and jalapenos. Cook over medium heat, 1 to 2 minutes. Toss in the carrots and cook until softened, about 2 minutes. Toss in the mushrooms and cook until softened, 2 to 3 minutes, and then add cabbage and cook 1 minute longer. Sprinkle in the green scallions.
Stir in the soy and rice wine vinegar. Toss in the cooked noodles, stir to combine and cook until the noodles are hot and nicely coated.
Transfer to a serving dish and sprinkle with the peanuts.