For the topping: Preheat the oven to 425 degrees F.
Mix together the panko, Parmesan and olive oil in a small bowl. Season with the salt and set aside.
For the pasta: Cook the pasta in boiling salted water for 4 minutes, then reserve 1/4 cup pasta water and drain. Set aside.
Place a medium braiser over medium heat. Melt the butter and whisk in the flour until smooth. Slowly add the milk, whisking constantly to prevent lumps, then add the cream, whisking. Bring the milk mixture to a simmer, whisking often. Whisk in the provolone and Parmesan until melted and smooth. Season with the salt. Fold in the blanched pasta, reserved pasta water and the broccoli florets. Top with the breadcrumb mixture and bake in the top third of the oven until golden brown and bubbly, about 20 minutes.