Preheat the oven to 500 degrees F. Place a 12-inch cast-iron skillet in the oven to preheat for 20 to 25 minutes.
Meanwhile, roll or stretch the dough into a 14-inch circle. Remove the preheated skillet from the oven. Drizzle half the garlic-infused olive oil into the skillet, then carefully transfer the dough to the skillet, pressing it up the edges and letting it sizzle. Brush the remaining olive oil on the dough. Sprinkle the grated mozzarella and Asiago on the dough, then top with the mozzarella pearls. Sprinkle with a pinch of salt and pepper. Bake on the bottom rack of the oven until golden, 12 to 14 minutes.
Transfer to a cutting board, then drizzle with the truffle oil, top with shaved Parmesan and lots of fresh basil. Cut into slices and serve.