This is a very special recipe: I developed and wrote it for my wedding day. The marinade is fantastic: I've marinated chicken thighs in it for 24 hours, but 48 is optimal. Don't forget to serve with a few pieces of the roasted lemon—that's the best part.
Prepare the marinade: Using a spoon, scrape away the ginger peel, then slice into coins; stack the coins and cut into uniform matchsticks. Thinly slice the peppers and lemons; roughly chop the garlic. Set aside.
Marinate the chicken: Place a zip-top bag into a baking dish and add the chicken, salt, sugar, vinegar, fish sauce, and soy sauce. Squeeze the juice from the sliced lemons into the bag, then add the lemons, garlic, ginger, peppers, thyme sprigs, and olive oil. Use your hands to thoroughly combine the ingredients inside the bag. Then seal the bag and chill for 12-48 hours to allow all the flavors to meld and permeate the chicken.
Cook the chicken: Preheat oven to 450 degrees F. Evenly arrange chicken thighs skin side up in a roasting pan and pour marinade over the top. Season with salt and pepper and roast until the chicken is cooked through and the sauce is bubbly, 30-35 minutes. Serve with pan juices and pieces of the cooked lemon.