Preheat the oven to 325 degrees F. Remove the turkey neck and giblets.
Pat the turkey dry and put breast-side up on a rack in a roasting pan; season inside and out with salt and pepper (skip the salt for a brined or kosher turkey). Fill the turkey cavity with chopped onions, carrots, apples and/or fresh herbs, then let stand 30 minutes at room temperature.
Brush the turkey with melted butter, tent with foil and roast 2 hours for a 10-to-12-pound bird; add 15 minutes for each additional pound.
Increase the oven temperature to 425 degrees F; uncover the turkey, brush with more butter and roast 1 more hour, or until the thigh meat reaches 165 degrees F.