Special equipment: six 6-inch wooden skewers
Position an oven rack in the upper third of the oven and preheat to 400 degrees F. Fit a rimmed baking sheet with a baking rack.
Combine the artichoke hearts, pesto and 1/4 cup of the Parmesan in a food processor and pulse until finely chopped, 10 to 12 pulses. Set aside.
Sprinkle the chicken cutlets with salt and pepper and arrange them pounded-side up on a work surface. Divide the provolone evenly among the cutlets, leaving a 1/4-inch border around the edges, then top evenly with the pesto and artichoke filling. Starting at the short end of each cutlet, roll up to enclose the filling. Secure with a wooden skewer and season with more salt and pepper.
Put the flour in a shallow dish. Put the eggs in a second shallow dish and beat until very loose. Mix the breadcrumbs and remaining 1/4 cup Parmesan in a third shallow dish. Coat the chicken roll-ups first in the flour, then dip in the egg, letting any excess drip off. Last, coat fully with the breadcrumb mixture and transfer to a plate.
Heat 2 tablespoons of the oil in a large nonstick skillet over medium-high heat. Put 3 of the roll-ups in the skillet seam-side down and cook, flipping as needed, until golden brown on all sides, about 5 minutes. Transfer to the prepared baking sheet. Wipe out the skillet and heat the remaining 2 tablespoons oil. Cook the remaining roll-ups in the same method, then transfer to the baking sheet. Bake the roll-ups until cooked through, about 15 minutes. Remove the skewers before serving.
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