Bring a large pot of salted water to a boil over medium-high heat. Add the penne and cook according to package directions or until al dente. Drain well, reserving 1/2 cup of the pasta water.
Meanwhile, heat a medium skillet over medium-high heat. Add the olive oil and sausage; cook for about 5 minutes, breaking up the sausage into bite-size pieces with a wooden spoon. Add the shallots and cook for another minute. Stir in the corn and salt, and cook, stirring often, until the corn is warmed through, another 2 minutes. Transfer the mixture to a large bowl.
To the bowl, add the mascarpone, chile paste and the hot pasta and reserved pasta water. Add the Parmesan directly over the untossed hot pasta. Using a large serving spoon, toss everything together well. Add the basil and toss again. Serve with additional Parmesan if desired.