Put the quinoa in a bowl and cover with water; drain. Repeat twice; drain well. (This will help remove bitterness.) Transfer the quinoa to a medium saucepan over medium heat and stir constantly until the quinoa is dry, about 8 minutes. Add 1 1/2 cups chicken broth, 3/4 cup water and 1/2 teaspoon salt. Bring to a simmer, then cover the pan, leaving the lid slightly ajar to let steam escape; reduce the heat to medium low and cook until the quinoa is tender and the liquid is absorbed, about 15 minutes.
Meanwhile, heat the vegetable oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Add the red onion and garlic and cook until slightly softened, about 4 minutes. Add the chile powder, coriander and cumin and cook, stirring, until the spices darken, about 1 minute. Add the remaining 1 1/2 cups chicken broth, the jalapeno, sweet potatoes and 1/2 teaspoon salt. Increase the heat to medium high and bring to a simmer. Cook, stirring occasionally, until the sweet potatoes are tender and the liquid is almost absorbed, about 15 minutes.
Add the sweet potato mixture to the quinoa, then add the cilantro and lime juice and toss; season with salt.