Make the glaze: Combine the orange juice, brown sugar, tamari, peppercorns, 1/4 teaspoon salt, 1/2 teaspoon ground pepper, the anise and ginger in a medium saucepan. Bring to a boil over high heat. Reduce to a simmer and cook until reduced by half, about 15 minutes. Strain and let cool.
Grill the short ribs: Toss the ribs with 1/2 cup of the glaze, reserving the remaining glaze for brushing. Set aside the ribs at room temperature for 30 minutes.
Preheat a grill to medium high. Remove the ribs from the glaze, shaking off the excess. Brush with the canola oil and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Grill the ribs, brushing occasionally with the reserved glaze, until nicely charred but still pink in the middle, about 3 minutes per side.
Make the scallion–peanut relish: Combine the peanuts, scallions, brown sugar, allspice and cinnamon in a bowl and sprinkle lightly with salt. Transfer the ribs to a platter and top with the relish.