For the dressing: Mince the capers and the garlic; add the salt and use the back of your knife to grind into a paste. Add the paste to a medium mixing bowl along with the mustard, mayonnaise, sesame oil, cayenne and cloves. Whisk to combine. Stir in lemon juice, and add pepper to taste.
For the salad: Combine the kale and 1 cup of the dressing in a large bowl, and toss to coat. Let sit for about 30 minutes in the refrigerator to help tenderize the kale.
Before serving, top the salad with the croutons and shaved Parmesan. If the kale is too dry, add more dressing as needed. Serve immediately, with remaining dressing on the side.