Bring 1 cup water, 1 sliced stick butter and 1/2 teaspoon each kosher salt and pepper to a boil in a saucepan. Add 1 cup flour, reduce the heat to low and cook, stirring, until the mixture pulls away from the pan and looks shiny, about 3 minutes.
Transfer the dough to a stand mixer; beat in 4 eggs, one at a time, on medium speed until smooth. Stir in 6 finely chopped cooked thick-cut bacon slices, 3/4 cup grated smoked gouda and 2 tablespoons chopped chives. Transfer to a piping bag; snip off the end. Pipe tablespoon-size mounds onto 2 parchment-lined baking sheets. Sprinkle with more gouda.
Bake at 400˚ F, until the gougeres are puffed and golden, 25 to 30 minutes, rotating the pan after 20 minutes.