The day before roasting the turkey, remove the neck and giblets and reserve for gravy (see below). Pat the turkey dry with paper towels and put on a rimmed baking sheet.
Combine 1/4 cup salt, the sugar, 1 tablespoon each rosemary, sage and thyme, the celery seeds and 2 teaspoons pepper in a spice grinder. Pulse until the herbs are finely chopped and the salt is pale green. Rub the turkey inside and out with the salt mixture, rubbing some under the skin of the breasts. Refrigerate, uncovered, at least 8 hours or overnight.
Position an oven rack in the lowest position (remove the other racks); preheat to 350 degrees F. Rinse the turkey well and pat dry with paper towels. Stuff the cavity of the turkey with the herb sprigs, carrot, celery and shallots. Tie the legs together with kitchen twine. Put the turkey breast-side up on a rack set in a large roasting pan and tuck the wings under the body. Let sit at room temperature for 30 minutes.
Pour the wine over the turkey, then brush all over with the melted butter. Roast the turkey 1 hour, then baste with the pan drippings, adding up to 1/2 cup water to the pan if the drippings are getting too dark. Continue to roast the turkey, basting every 30 minutes and adding more water to the pan if needed, until the skin is golden brown and a thermometer inserted into the thigh registers 160 degrees F, 1 1/2 to 2 more hours. Transfer the turkey to a cutting board and let rest 30 minutes before carving; reserve the drippings for the gravy.
Photograph by Ryan Dausch