For the broth: Position a rack in the upper third of the oven and preheat to 450 degrees F. Toss the turkey bones and parts, onions, ginger and garlic with the vegetable oil in a large bowl. Lightly sprinkle with salt and transfer to a rimmed baking sheet, spreading everything out into a somewhat even layer (it is okay if some items slightly overlap). Roast turning the bones and vegetables halfway through until the vegetables are slightly charred, about 30 minutes.
Meanwhile, add the star anise pods, peppercorns and cinnamon sticks to a large pot. Set over medium heat and toast until very fragrant, shaking the pot occasionally, about 5 minutes. Turn off the heat and add the chicken broth, fish sauce, according to taste, and 8 cups of water.
Add the roasted turkey bones and vegetables to the pot, scraping any browned bits off of the baking sheet and adding them in as well. Bring to a boil over high heat, then reduce the heat to medium-low and gently simmer for 1 hour. Remove from the heat and strain the broth through a fine-mesh sieve and into another large pot. (The broth can be made to this point up to 2 days in advance; let cool, then refrigerate in a covered container.) Stir the shredded turkey meat into the hot broth.
For the soup: Cook the noodles according to the package instructions. Divide the noodles among 6 bowls then top with the broth and shredded meat. Serve with the bean sprouts, Thai basil, jalapenos, red onion, hoisin sauce, sriracha and a lime wedge on the side so that guests can top their pho as they like.
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