Heat the oil in a large saucepan over medium-high heat; add the jalapenos, onions and vinegar and cook, stirring, until softened, about 5 minutes. Add the garlic and cook about 30 seconds.
Stir in the broth, tomatoes, chili powder and five-spice powder if using, and increase the heat to high. Bring to a full boil and cook for 1 minute. Stir in the beans and return to a full boil. Reduce the heat to medium and simmer until just slightly thickened but still soupy, about 5 minutes. Stir in the cilantro.
Fill each bowl with about 1/2 cup of rice. Ladle the chili on top, sprinkle with the Cheddar and serve.