Add the vegetable oil to a large skillet over medium heat. Sprinkle the chicken with salt and pepper and add to the skillet. Cook, stirring occasionally, until browned and mostly cooked through, about 8 minutes.
Add the green beans and saute until slightly brown but still bright green, about 2 more minutes.
Cook the pasta to al dente according to the directions on the package.
Meanwhile, make the sauce. Whisk together the coconut milk, peanut butter, soy sauce, sugar, chile oil, lime juice and 1/3 cup water in a medium bowl or large measuring cup (the peanut butter will not fully incorporate). Set aside.
Add the ginger and garlic to the skillet with the chicken and beans. Cook until fragrant, 30 seconds to 1 minute. Add the curry powder and stir until toasted, about 20 seconds.
Pour the coconut milk mixture into the skillet, making sure to get all of the peanut butter out of the bowl. Scrape any browned bits off the bottom of the skillet and cook until the sauce boils and thickens slightly, about 4 minutes.
Drain the pasta and pour into the skillet, then carefully toss to coat. Gently tip the pasta onto a serving platter. Garnish with peanuts, cilantro and lime wedges.