In a large pot of salted boiling water, cook the pasta until al dente. Using a heatproof measuring cup, scoop out 1 cup of the pasta water. Drain the pasta in a colander. Add 1 tablespoon of olive oil to the pasta and toss to coat.
Wipe out the pot and heat 2 tablespoons of olive oil in it. Add the poblanos, onion, and a generous pinch of salt. Cook over medium-high heat, stirring, until softened, 5 to 7 minutes. Add the ground turkey and cook, stirring, until the meat is just cooked through and any liquid has evaporated, about 8 minutes.
Meanwhile, in a small skillet, heat the remaining 1 tablespoon of olive oil. Add the panko and cook over medium-high heat, stirring, until golden, about 3 minutes. Remove from the heat and stir in the lemon zest and parsley. Season the breadcrumbs with salt and pepper.
Add the flour to the pot and cook, stirring, until the turkey mixture is well coated, about 1 minute. Stir in the tomatoes, chipotles, and 1/2 cup of the reserved pasta water. Simmer until the mixture is thickened, 2 to 3 minutes. Remove the pot from the heat and stir in the pasta, cheese, and cream, if using; add more pasta water if needed. Fold in the arugula until just wilted; season the chili mac with salt and pepper. Serve the chili mac in bowls, topped with shredded cheddar cheese and the breadcrumbs.