Position racks in the upper and lower thirds of the oven; preheat to 225 degrees F. Line 2 baking sheets with parchment paper. Remove the tea leaves from the tea bag. If the leaves are large, finely grind in a spice grinder. Mix the tea with the cardamom, cinnamon, ginger and cloves in a small bowl.
Whisk the egg whites in a large bowl with a mixer on medium speed until frothy, about 30 seconds. Beat in the cream of tartar and salt until soft peaks form, 3 to 4 minutes. Increase the mixer speed to medium high and beat in the granulated sugar, 1 tablespoon at a time. Beat until stiff peaks form, 4 to 5 minutes. Beat in the vanilla and tea-spice mixture.
Transfer the meringue to a piping bag fitted with a 1/2-inch star tip. Pipe 1 1/4-inch mounds about 1 inch apart on the prepared pans. Sprinkle with sanding sugar. Bake, switching the pans halfway through, until the meringues are dry enough to peel off the parchment easily, about 2 hours. Turn off the oven; leave the meringues in the oven to finish drying, about 1 more hour. Let cool completely on the pans.