Bring the chicken broth and 1/4 cup water to a boil in a medium saucepan. Stir in the barley and 1/4 teaspoon salt, cover and cook over medium heat until the liquid is absorbed, about 10 minutes.
Meanwhile, melt 1 tablespoon butter in a large skillet over medium-high heat; add the almonds and cook, stirring, until toasted, 2 minutes. Transfer to a plate. Add the Brussels sprouts, lemon zest and 1/4 teaspoon salt to the skillet and cook, stirring occasionally, until crisp-tender, about 2 minutes; transfer to a large bowl and wipe out the skillet. Add the barley to the bowl and toss; cover to keep warm.
Add the olive oil to the skillet and return to medium-high heat. Sprinkle the turkey with 1/4 teaspoon salt, and pepper to taste; add to the skillet and cook, turning once, until cooked through, about 5 minutes. Divide among plates. Add the tomato and lemon juice to the skillet and cook 1 minute. Stir in the almonds and the remaining 1 tablespoon butter until melted, then spoon over the turkey. Serve with the barley salad.