Lay the bacon in a large skillet over medium heat and cook to your desired crispness, 5 to 10 minutes. Transfer the bacon to a paper towel-lined plate, reserving the drippings and leaving any crunchy bits in the skillet.
While the bacon cooks, remove the stems from the kale and discard. Roll up the leaves lengthwise and slice crosswise into thin strips. Transfer to a large bowl; add the nuts, chickpeas and Parmesan.
Return the skillet to medium heat and add back 3 tablespoons of the reserved bacon drippings. (If you don't have 3 tablespoons, make up the difference with olive oil.) Add the shallots and cook for 1 minute, stirring constantly. Whisk in the vinegar, brown sugar and mustard, scraping up any brown bits from the bottom of the skillet. Remove the vinaigrette from the heat and season with salt and pepper.
Chop the bacon and add it to the bowl. Drizzle in the warm dressing and toss to coat the salad. Serve immediately.