Bring a large pot of salted water to a boil. Toss in the soba and swish them around with a pair of tongs so they don't stick together. Cook the noodles until they are soft, 5 to 6 minutes. Strain through a colander and immediately rinse with cold water. Transfer to a bowl and toss with the sesame oil.
Coat a large straight-sided saute pan with peanut oil and toss in the garlic, ginger and jalapeno. Bring the pan to a medium heat and cook the garlic and ginger for 1 to 2 minutes. Toss in the carrots and 1/4 cup water and cook until the water has evaporated. Toss in the mushrooms and cook until the mushrooms have softened, 2 to 3 minutes. Sprinkle in the edamame and scallions.
Add the soy, rice wine vinegar and 2 tablespoons water. Toss in the cooked soba, stir to combine and cook until the noodles are hot and the water has evaporated.
Transfer to a serving dish and sprinkle with the peanuts.