Cook the chorizo in a large nonstick skillet over medium heat, stirring occasionally, until lightly browned, about 5 minutes. Transfer to a food processor with a slotted spoon. Add 1/4 cup panko, the almonds and 1 clove garlic to the drippings in the skillet. Cook, stirring, until the panko and almonds are toasted, about 3 minutes; remove to a bowl. Reserve the skillet.
Add the beans, egg, remaining 1/2 cup panko, the parsley, 1 tablespoon olive oil, remaining 1 clove garlic, 1/2 teaspoon salt and a few grinds of pepper to the food processor. Process until chunky. Shape into eight 1-inch-thick patties (about 1/3 cup each) on a baking sheet. Freeze until firm, about 10 minutes.
Meanwhile, make the romesco sauce: Char the bell pepper over a gas burner on medium heat, 6 to 8 minutes. (Alternatively, broil the pepper until charred.) Discard the stem, seeds and blackened skin. Rinse out the food processor and puree the bell pepper with the almond mixture, 2 tablespoons olive oil, the vinegar and 1/4 teaspoon salt until mostly smooth, thinning with up to 1/3 cup water. Season with salt and pepper.
Heat the remaining 2 tablespoons olive oil in the reserved skillet over medium-high heat. Add the chorizo patties and cook, turning once, until browned, 4 to 5 minutes.
Divide the romesco sauce among plates and top with the patties. Drizzle olive oil and vinegar on the arugula and season with salt. Serve with the patties.