Mix the butter, adobo sauce and a pinch of salt in a small bowl until combined; set aside.
Fill a large pot or Dutch oven with 3 quarts water; season generously with salt and add the potatoes and garlic. Bring to a boil, then reduce the heat and simmer until the potatoes are tender, about 10 minutes. Add the corn and cook 2 minutes. Add the clams, chorizo and poblanos; cover and cook until the clams open, 3 to 5 minutes (discard any clams that do not open).
Remove the clams, potatoes, corn, chorizo and poblanos to a large bowl using a slotted spoon; cover to keep warm. Ladle 2 cups of the cooking liquid into a small saucepan; add the chipotle butter and lime juice. Whisk over medium-high heat until the butter melts and the broth is hot. Uncover the clam mixture and pour the hot broth on top. Top with the cilantro.